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Proficiency in English language. Too many of the kisses proffered in the hope of miraculous transformation have resulted, not in the frog becoming a prince, but in the princess turning into a frog. It is a matter both of the classics and of drama.
Within the translating community those who know Greek and Latin are naturally enough more sympathetic to the special nature of dealing with the classical world. They are frequently the least sympathetic to the tightrope that the translator for performance is constantly walking. The English covers a multitude of sins. What is the purpose of translation?
And why do most of the theories and methods of procedure that can be applied to translation in general prove inadequate for the translation of a stage work?
That is what this book is intended to be about. How should an English-speaking Electra sound? Will that be the same in a play by Aeschylus, by Sophocles and by Euripides? And in New York, Dublin or London? Are there any guidelines or parameters in trying to ensure that Greek plays are made to live for an audience of today?
Or is it a free-for-all? Aeschylus uses coinages which are not found anywhere else in surviving Greek literature. Menander makes domestic issues universal as, years later, will Chekhov or Ayckbourn. All of them were breaking new ground, pushing forward the possibilities of the stage.
To this may be added the variety of metre used in tragedy and in comedy, from the iambic trimeters of dialogue to the subtle and varied lyrics of choral interlude and formal probably sung lament. Direct translation of Greek plays into English for performance had to wait, with a few exceptions, until the twentieth century. In Athens theatre was an art form akin to those of sculpture, painting, architecture and music.
It was a synthesis of all the arts, statues that move, pictures that change, architecture that frames, music that highlights; amongst which poetry and rhetoric must take their place, but they must take that place alongside music, dance, acting and visual stagecraft. Perhaps on the theatrical tower of Babel the table is a round one where language has to take its seat as an equal among many, instead of demanding to be at the head.
Stage translators are well aware that playwrights make and fashion plays rather than simply rendering them on paper. All I have to do now is write it. But if the past is a closed world, may not theatre perform an equal service by helping to reveal that closed past? Or absorb it? The stage is a place of metaphor and icon. Greek tragedy and, to a lesser extent comedy, offer a fund of exempla. Does not the translation of an ancient Greek drama today — tragedy or satyr, comedy old or new — deal with similar propositions?
It is about the nature of that privileged conversation that this book has been written. The Greek playwrights had no idea that their work would last. Usually they expected a single performance. For the creative artist such impermanence must clarify the mind with all the intensity of approaching death. Except in some areas of performance art, 6 Found in Translation contemporary theatre is insulated from that sort of moment of truth.
Capturing a similar momentum is a real challenge for a translator. In the rest of this book I want to consider three main areas. The topic turned out to be far larger than anticipated. A whole thesis could be written comparing eighteenth- and nineteenth-century translations of a single Sophocles play.
This is not the place for a detailed analysis of why translation should have proved more popular in certain periods than in others, beyond pointing to the burgeoning movement towards a wider access in education from the middle of the nineteenth century onwards.
Certainly the repertoire of the public theatres had precious little to do with it until comparatively recently. Nor is there as much speculation here as I would have liked on why certain plays have proved more attractive to translators than others over eighty have tackled Prometheus, Agamemnon, Antigone and Oedipus Tyrannus , and in some periods rather than others at least six new translations of Medea in the s, twelve of Alcestis between and Paring everything down to manageable proportions has resulted in referring to far fewer translations than are available, good, bad and indifferent.
I have used only published translations and tried to avoid my own, or those on which I have collaborated. As the prime reason for instigating a new translation has to be a belief that yours will be better than any previous one, I wanted to look at the questions without suggesting there were answers up my sleeve. All I can hope is that the book will in some small way illuminate the nature of drama and its relationship to its own time as well as to the contemporary audience.
Titles of plays and characters in quotation have been kept as they are to be found in the relevant translations and, as most of these use the latinised versions e. A layer of complexity was provided by the absence in many early editions of a formal publisher and sometimes a date, compounded by a certain coyness amongst translators, especially those from to , over admitting their identity though seldom their provenance.
Details of the lives of major translators, Potter, Wodhull, Cumberland, Theobald, Mitchell, Frere, Buckley, Swanwick, Campbell, Way and others have necessarily been reduced to a minimum and must await another book.
See also the preamble to the Appendix. Errors there will be and omissions, for which my apologies, tempered at least by the possibilities that may have been uncovered for further and more reliable research.
A number of mistakes have been corrected from the existing data bases, and some translations unearthed that have been overlooked. A few of the recorded translations especially from Foster, , proved impossible to locate, including some of those listed by the Cambridge publisher, J.
It has been a salutary experience which served to increase my respect for most of those who have shared this elusive craft. In the theatre there are many tenants, and just as many meanings to be taken of texts.
Where such a study comes from and how is more complicated. A selective, indeed idiosyncratic, trawl through a wide variety of approaches and proposals will result in few rules for the dramatic translator — rules, as Susan Bassnett has pointed out, are no longer appropriate — but may help to draw attention to what is distinctive in Greek tragedy and comedy and what may be worth preserving for the contemporary audience or reader.
Such discrimination was short-lived. The history of the drama bears witness to the process of renewal of an old theme being valued more for its diversion from the original than from its closeness to it. Plautus was both original and not original; for his plays and those of Terence we do have some indication of what translation meant for the Romans.
All surviving Roman comedy, twenty full plays of Plautus and six of Terence, was based on Greek comedies from anything between 80 and Finding Principles, Finding a Theory 11 years before their Latin versions. They come down to us as original works, though that, perhaps, is the point at issue.
The fourth century bc in Athens had seen the new vogue in comedy develop away from the fantasy and the politics of Aristophanes to the more polite world of Diphilus, Philemon and Menander. Unfortunately, only fragments survive of the plays of either Diphilus or Philemon; the precious little we now have of Menander consists of effectively two whole plays, The Bad-Tempered Man or The Malcontent Dyskolos and The Woman from Samos Samia , and substantial sections of several others. Their world, then, is a curious blend of Greece and Rome.
What parallels there might be and what challenges this affords strike at the heart of what and where the translator stands in relation to cultural transference or translocation.
No other culture that they knew or cared about had literature which they might wish to share with their contemporaries. With the Romans, things were different. A major proportion of their culture, in its broadest sense, was derived from the Greek and the whole concept of translation was widely addressed.
Several different Latin words were used for the act of linguistic translation and several of the words used themselves had other meanings which spelled out the status of the transaction. The dramatic translator is certainly that, but with the added dimension of performance where every element has to be honed through all those involved with the production process.
Within the English tradition translation from the Greek was as sporadic as it was erratic. Dryden, Pope, Diderot, Cowper and others in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries were to make elegant and eloquent observations on the nature and function of translation. In the nineteenth, Schleiermacher, Humboldt, Goethe and Nietzsche in Germany; Arnold, Newman and Browning, reinforced by a growing band of translators of Greek tragedy, committed to print miscellaneous thoughts about how and why they had proceeded as they did.
John Dryden, an original playwright as well as essayist, Poet Laureate and Royal Historiographer, was claimed by Samuel Johnson as the father of English criticism.
Dryden was fortunate in the time into which he was born. Managing to make his name both for writing his Heroic Stanzas on the death of Cromwell and, barely two years later, for his celebration Finding Principles, Finding a Theory 13 of the restoration of the monarchy Astrea Redux of , he was instrumental in introducing heroic drama to the newly liberated English stage, most notably in All for Love.
What English readers, unacquainted with Greek or Latin, will believe me, or any other man, when we commend those authors, and confess we derive all that is pardonable in us from their fountains, if they take those to the same poets whom our Oglebys have translated?
But without the latter he can never arrive at the useful and the delightful, without which reading is a penance and a fatigue. A translator that would 14 Found in Translation write with any force or spirit of an original must never dwell on the words of his author. He ought to possess himself entirely and perfectly comprehend the genius and sense of his author, the nature of the subject, and the terms of the art or subject treated of. They were published anonymously as Essay on the Principles of Translation in — something that aroused suspicions of plagiarism until Tytler revealed his authorship.
That the translation should give a complete transcript of the ideas of the original work. That the style and manner of the writing should be of the same character with that of the original. That the translation should have all the ease of original composition. Echard re-dressed this in the argot of the London of his time; and Tytler found himself uncomfortable without being quite sure why.
Here Tytler did manage to pin down the source of his unease. However laudable the desire to do justice to the playwrights of antiquity within their own milieu, a modern performance is for a modern audience.
Anything that comes under the broad banner of cultural transference is inevitably writ large when considering Greek tragedy. There is always likely to be a gulf between those whose classical training demands a respect for the play on the page, in the context of the society of ancient Greece, and those for whom text is pretext, no more than a map from which they wish to create a landscape of their own imagination.
Later chapters will give some indication, I hope, of how the texts that survive, however imperfectly, have been opened up in recent years to reveal a theatrical awareness on the part of the ancient dramatists that reveals them as profoundly effective makers of plays.
When, as Meierhold was aware, each new director, each new actor, each new designer creates a new version of an original playtext: and when each new audience and each member of that audience provides a new dimension in reception, then the gloves are off in the battle to preserve rather than to exploit the past.
Translation of a stage work may have a number of functions, but most of them are subordinated to what happens when the translation is relinquished, as was the original play, into the hands of the practitioners. After his death his plays were reproduced, in itself a kind of translation.
After their deaths so were the plays of Sophocles and especially Euripides who was the mainstay of the repertoire of the travelling troupes in the post-classical and Hellenistic eras. Eliot see p.
The debate was addressed from a variety of perspectives in The Craft and Context of Translation edited by William Arrowsmith, one of the most notable translators from the Greek of his era, and Roger Shattuck.
Carne-Ross made a case for its being a positive help for the translator to think in terms of a stage production. Brave assertion Finding Principles, Finding a Theory 17 though it may be, this has sometimes proved more of a hindrance than a help. This is no sort of a problem in Shakespeare and it led Arrowsmith into a discussion of how to handle the everyday details of living, especially in comedy.
However true this may be, it is in part the result, it might be argued, of ignoring the differences between words as words, and words as they are used in a dramatic context.
Similarly Umberto Eco in Mouse or Rat? Translation as Negotiation elegantly elaborated the nature of engagement between writer and reader. A drama has a multiplicity of targets, each a staging-post where horses are changed along the road between rehearsal draft and curtain-call, or, thinking Hollywood, between pitch and Oscar. The sense of intertextuality in Greek tragedy is easy enough to follow in any reading of the three Electra plays.
Nor is this a unique example.