Entrepreneurial development pdf

Date published 
 
    Contents
  1. Dynamics Of Entrepreneurial Development And Management By Vasant Desai Pdf Free 39
  2. MICROFINANCE AND ENTREPRENEURIAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
  3. Annual John D. Thompson Entrepreneurial Development Seminar
  4. Entrepreneurial development by dr ss khanka pdf

this book contain broad discussion about entrepreneur, traits, types, characteristics, theories. In fact, innovation is the life blood of any kind of entrepreneurs; this is one of the tools that skills that lead to the development of an ―entrepreneurial mindset. ENTREPRENEURIAL DEVELOPMENT. INTRODUCTION. The entrepreneurship development is an impetus to achieve overall economic development.

Author:TRESA PHATDOUANG
Language:English, Spanish, Portuguese
Country:Burundi
Genre:Science & Research
Pages:761
Published (Last):17.09.2016
ISBN:868-8-27360-338-9
Distribution:Free* [*Registration Required]
Uploaded by: SHERRI

50695 downloads 172534 Views 24.40MB PDF Size Report


Entrepreneurial Development Pdf

Download Entrepreneurial Development Download free online book chm pdf. Entrepreneurship Development. Entrepreneur. The word entrepreneur originates from the French word, entrepreneur, which means "to undertake." In a business. identify the entrepreneurial competencies;. ➢ explain and follow the process of entrepreneurship development; and. ➢ identify the values, attitudes.

Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. See our User Agreement and Privacy Policy. See our Privacy Policy and User Agreement for details. Published on Mar 5, SlideShare Explore Search You. Submit Search. Successfully reported this slideshow. We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

An entrepreneur must have these qualities because decision making affect the profitability and reputation of the enterprise. Entrepreneurial persons are quick to see and seize opportunities.

They show an innovative turn of mind and convert difficulties into opportunities. An entrepreneur must have a motivator.

He inspires the employees to achieving the target. Without motivation an entrepreneur cannot achieve the target. So motivation is very necessary for achieving the target. Entrepreneur shows a high level of future orientation. They do not allow the past to obsess them. They are oriented towards present and future. An entrepreneur is a person who during the course of his activities he should be a person who likes working with people and who has skills of dealing with people.

Facing Uncertainty: Functions of Entrepreneur: Risk taking and Uncertainty Bearing: Taking Business Decisions: Managerial Functions: Maintain Good-Relations: Analysis the Environment: Internal Environment: External Environment: An entrepreneur is a person who faces uncertainty.

The future is uncertain. So the decision of entrepreneur affects the profitability and reputation of the enterprise. An entrepreneur must have a coordinator. He allocates the resources and utilizes the resources for achieving the target. Without coordination an entrepreneur cannot achieve the target. An entrepreneur has to perform the following function: The future is unpredictable. The entrepreneur has to take risks in these circumstances.

If the venture succeeds, the entrepreneur profits; if it doe not, losses occur. Thus, taking risks forms an important entrepreneurial function.

All decision concerning business are taken by the entrepreneur. He has to formulate an action plan regarding the product and quality of the product to be produced. He has to evolve the best possible method of production which would earn him a sizeable profit.

The entrepreneur performs various managerial functions.

The entrepreneur arranges finance, download raw materials, provides the necessary infrastructure for production. The entrepreneur has a multifaced personality when he undertakes managerial functions. The most important function of an entrepreneur is innovation.

He introduces far-reaching improvements in the quantity and quality of production line. He considers the economic viability and technical feasibility of an invention. The entrepreneur coordinates the other factors of production. Coordination involves selection of the right type of factors, employment of each factor in the right quantity, use of the best technical devices, division of labour, reduction of waste etc.

An entrepreneur must have good relations with his customer to earn profit and win their confidence in his product. He must also maintain good relations with his employees.

An entrepreneur analysis the environment. Environment are those factor which affect the business. There are two type of environment: Internal environment are controllable External environment are beyond the control of the business.

Planning is the first function of the management. Planning is deciding in advance what is to be done, how is to be done, which is to be done, by whom is to be done. It is very necessary function of entrepreneur.

Without planning an entrepreneur cannot achieve the target. Utilizes the Resources: Role of Entrepreneur in Economic Growth: Importance of Entrepreneur in Economic Development: An entrepreneur allocates the resources and utilizes the resources. An entrepreneur must utilize the resources for the achievement of the objectives. If the entrepreneur doe not utilizes the resources he cannot become a successful entrepreneur.

The position of the entrepreneur in modern production is like that of the director of a play. Modern economic development is closely linked with production.

Modern production is higher complex. The entrepreneur directs production and he must do whatever is necessary for its success. His role in modern economic development has at least three aspects: This involves not only assembling the factors, but also to see that the best combination of factors is made available for the production process.

This is the important function of the entrepreneur and the quantum of profit he receives is directly proportionate to the risks he takes. Risks are generally based on the anticipation of demand. Innovation is different from invention. Invention is the work of scientists. Innovation implies the commercial application of an invention. As an innovator the entrepreneur assumes the role of a pioneer and an industrial leader. The entrepreneur can undertake anyone type of the following five categories of innovation: Every country tries to achieve maximum economic development.

The economic development of a country to a large extent depends on human resources. But human resource alone will not produce economic development-there must be dynamic entrepreneurs. Importances of entrepreneurs in economic development are: Growing unemployment particularly educated unemployment is an acute problem of the nation. If a hundred persons become entrepreneur they not only create a hundred jobs for themselves but also provide employment to many more. These enterprises grow providing direct and indirect employment to many more.

Thus entrepreneurship is the best way to fight the evil of unemployment. The domestic demand increases with ever increasing population and standard of living. The export demand also increases to meet the needs of growing import due to various reasons. An increasing number of entrepreneurs are required to meet this increasing demand for goods and services. Thus entrepreneurship increases the national income. When a society produces a small number of entrepreneurs the enterprise due to lack of competition grow into a few big business houses.

This results in concentration of wealth in a few families. This can have a serious social and national implication. When the number of entrepreneurs increases, a large amount of national wealth is also shared by a large number of entrepreneurs, thus dispersing wealth.

This dispersal of wealth promotes the real socialism and makes the economy healthy. The growth of industry and business leads to a large number of public benefits like road, transport, health, education, entertainment etc.

A rapid development of entrepreneurship ensures a balanced regional development. When the new entrepreneurs grow at a faster pace, in view of the increasing competition in and around the cities, they are forced to set up their enterprise in the smaller towns away from big cities. This helps in the development of the backward regions. Entrepreneurship is essential for national self-reliance. Businessman export goods and services on a large scale and earn the scarce foreign exchange for the country.

Such import substitution and export promotion help to ensure the economic independence of the country. Many problems associated with youth and social tensions are rightly considered to be due to youth not being engaged in productive work. In the changing environment where we are faced with the problem of recession in wage employment opportunities, alternative to wage career is the only viable option. The country is required to divert the youth with latent entrepreneurial traits from wage career to self employment career.

Such alternate path through entrepreneurship could help the country in defusing social tension and unrest amongst youth. Entrepreneurs set up industries which remove scarcity of essential commodities and introduce new products. Production of goods on mass scale and manufacture handicrafts etc. These offer goods at lower costs and increase variety in consumption.

India is considered to be very rich in natural resources. A few large scale industries started by entrepreneurs from outside the state in economically backward areas may help as models of pioneering efforts, but ultimately the real strength of industrialization in backward areas depends upon the involvement of local entrepreneurship in such activities. Increased activities of local entrepreneurs will also result in making use of abundantly available local resources.

Business enterprises need to be innovative for their survival and better performance. Entrepreneurship development programmes are aimed at accelerating the pace of small firms' growth in India. Increased number of small firms is expected to result in more innovations and make the Indian industry compete in international market.

Explain the Theories ofAn Entrepreneurship. Theory of Entrepreneurship: According to Schumpeter Entrepreneurship refers to a process of action an entrepreneur undertakes to establish his enterprise. Main theories of entrepreneurship are summarized as follows: A Function of Innovation: Joseph A. Schumpeter , for the first time, put the human agent at the centre of the process of economic development and assigned a critical role to the entrepreneurship in his theory of economic development.

He considered economic development as a discrete technological change. The process of development can be generalized by five different types of events: An Organisation Building Function: Fredrick Harbison states that the 'organisation building' ability is the most critical skill needed for the industrial development. According to him entrepreneurship means the skill to build an organization.

Harbison spots the crux of the entrepreneurship in his ability to multiply himself by effectively delegating responsibilities to others. The main features are: A Function of Managerial Skill and Leadership: Hoselitz states that a person who is to become an industrial entrepreneur must have additional personality traits.

In addition to being motivated by the expectations of profit he must also have some managerial abilities and more important he must have ability to lead. Hoselitz maintains that financial skills have only a secondary consideration in entrepreneurship. According to him managerial skills and leadership are the important facts of entrepreneurship. He identifies three types of business leadership in the analysis of economic development of under-developed countries: The merchant money lender type The managerial type The entrepreneur type.

A Function of High Achievement: Mc Clelland states that a business man who simply behaves in traditional ways is not an entrepreneur. Moreover, entrepreneurial role appears to call for decision making under uncertainty.

Mc Clelland identified two characteristics of entrepreneurship firstly "doing things in a new and better way" and secondly "decision making under uncertainty". Persons with high achievement would take moderate risks. They would not behave traditionally no risk. The high achievement is associated with better performance at tasks which require some imagination, mental manipulation or new ways of putting things together, and such people do better at non routine task that require some degree of initiative or even inventiveness.

People with high achievement are not influenced by money reward as compared to people with low achievement. People with low achievement are prepared to work harder for money or such other external incentives. For people with high achievement, profit is a measure of success and competency. A Function of Social, Political and Economic structure: John Kunkel states that the industrial entrepreneurship depends upon four structures which are found within a society or community.

The society limits specific activities to members of particular subcultures. This limitation structure affects all the members of a society. The limitation structure is basically social and cultural but the demand structure is mainly economic. The demand structure is not static, and changes with economic progress and government policies. Demand structure can be improved by providing material rewards. This structure is necessary to increase the probability of entrepreneurial activity.

The opportunity structure constitutes the availability of capital, management and technological skills, information concerning production methods, labours and markets. All the activities associated with the effective planning and successful operation of industrial enterprises.

Kunkel argues that the labours supply cannot be viewed on par with the supply of other material conditions like capital. He states that labours means 'men' and is a function of several variables. The supply of factory labours is governed by available alternative means of livelihood, traditionalism and expectations of life. Liebenstein identified gap filling as an important characteristic of entrepreneurship.

In economic theory the production function is considered to be well defined and completely known. But the theory is silent about the keeper of the knowledge of production function.

Where and to whom in the firm this knowledge is supposed to be available is never stated. It is the entrepreneurial function to make up the deficiencies or to fill the gaps. These gaps arise because all the inputs in the production function cannot be marketed because some inputs like motivation, leadership etc.

You might also like: EBOOK ANTENNA KD PRASAD

This "gap-filling" activity gives rise to a most important entrepreneurial function namely "Input-Completing". He has to marshal all the inputs to realize final products.

AFunction of Group Level Pattern: Frank W. Young was reluctant to accept the entrepreneurial characteristics at the individual level.

According to him, instead of individual, one must find clusters which may qualify itself as entrepreneurial groups, as the groups with higher differentiation have the capacity to react. He defined 'reactiveness' or 'solidarity' as the degree to which the members of the group create, maintain and project a coherent definition of their situation; and 'differentiation' is defined as the diversity, as opposed to coherence, of the social meanings maintained by the group, when a group has a higher degree of institutional and occupational diversity, relative to its acceptance, it tends to intensify its internal communication which gives rise to a unified definition of the situation.

What are the objectives and Phases of Entrepreneurial Development Programme. Objectives or Need of EDPs: A Initial or Pre-Training Phase: Entrepreneurial development programme means a programme designed to help a person in strengthing his entrepreneurial motive and in acquiring skills and capabilities necessary for playing his entrepreneurial role effectively.

It is very necessary to promote his understanding to motives, motivation pattern, their impact on behaviour and entrepreneurial value. A programme which seeks to do this can qualify to be called as EDP.

In other words A EDP is primarily concerned with developing and motivating entrepreneurial talent and growing him to be an effective entrepreneur. An entrepreneur make use of the factors of production to the fullest advantage of the society, create innovations, generate employment, improve the standard of living of people, develop backward areas etc. EDP has an important role to play in solving the unemployment problem. Phases of Entrepreneurial Developement Programme: An entrepreneurial development programme consists of three broad phases: This phase includes the activities and the preparations required to launch the training programme.

The main activities are: Thus, pre-training stage involves the identification and selection of potential entrepreneurs and providing initial motivation to them. Selection of potential entrepreneurs has two essential components: Identifying Entrepreneurial Traits: Identification of Enterprise: B Training or Development Phase: Every participant must have a minimum level of eligibility for developing into an entrepreneur.

Entrepreneurial traits include socio- personal and human re-sources characteristics: The most common socio-personal characteristics are: Caste and family background help create entrepreneurial environment and occupational awareness for the entrepreneurs. Studies have revealed that younger people are more successful entrepreneur. A minimum level of education is essential to perform functions like meeting officials etc.

The size of the family and the entrepreneur's status in the family are important. A small entrepreneur has generally to depend upon family members as he cannot afford to hire workers. These are: It is the urge to improve one-self in relation to a goal. It refers to seeking challenge in one's activity. It has been defined as the desire for influencing other people and surrounding environment.

It has been defined as the general sense of adequacy in a person. Once an entrepreneur having necessary socio- personal and human resources characteristics is identified, it is necessary to identify s suitable enterprise or project for him.

The enterprise must be matched with the potential entrepreneur. All the background information like his skills, experience in the field, etc. The raw materials availability, the marketing avenues and profitability of the enterprise have to be explored. During this phase the training programme is implemented to develop motivation and skills among the participants. The objective of this phase is to bring desirable changes in the behaviours of the trainees.

The trainers have to judge how much, and how far the trainees have moved in their entrepreneurial pursuit's. Atrainer should see the following changes in the behaviour of participants: The main training inputs are as follows: Once the entrepreneur selects a particular enterprise the technical aspects of the trade is essential. He needs to also know the economic aspects of the technology including costs and benefits.

In order to develop human resources, development of achievement motive is essential. The purpose of AMT is to develop the need to achieve, risk taking, initiative and other such behavioural traits. A motivational development programme creates self awareness and self confidence among the participants and enables them to think positively and realistically.

The participants should be given opportunity to actually conduct market surveys for their chosen project. Once a participant is able to start the enterprise he requires managerial skills.

Managerial skills are particularly essential for a small scale enterprise who cannot afford to employ specialists in different areas of management. The aim should be to enable the participant to look at an enterprise in its totality and to develop overall managerial understanding.

Alot of time needs to be devoted to the actual preparation of project. Their active involvement in this task would provide them necessary understanding and also ensure their personal commitment. This phase involves assessment to judge how far the objectives of the programme have been achieved. Monitoring and follow up reveals drawbacks in the earlier phases and suggests guidelines for framing the future policy. In this phase infrastructural support, counseling and assistance in establishing new enterprise and in developing the existing units can also be reviewed.

Some common activities in the monitoring and follow up process are as follows: Content of Training Programme: Some of the major institutions for EDPs in India are as follows: The entrepreneurship development institute of India is an apex entrepreneurship institute promoted by industrial development bank of India, Industrial credit and Investment Corporation of India, Industrial Finance Corporation of India and state bank of India.

The institute enjoys acute support of government of Gujarat. The institute has been operating for the past more than 15 years now. The institute undertakes entrepreneurship development programmes to serve the following development objectives: The main objective of the institute are explained as follows: Xavier Institute of Social Services, Ranchi has been training rural entrepreneurs since Xavier Institute provides the training and assists the trainees in drafting project proposals and obtaining the required finance.

It offers a six months programme to tribal with minimum literacy and numeracy skills. The programme consists of: Explain the Entrepreneurial Development Programme in India. This is a technical management consultancy Organization. It was promoted by all-India financial institutions and state Corporations.

It undertakes assignments for project planning, detailed engineering, market surveys, management surveys and entrepreneurship development programmes. The programme consists of the following stages: This Centre was organized as registered society by a number of prominent industrialists, businessman, bankers, professionals and social workers.

It was setup in response to rapidly increasing unemployment and social unrest in Calcutta during the early s. It began as a vocational programme to provide self employment for educated youths. It has developed innovative approaches to help people set up their own business. The main programme are explained as follows: Access to high quality consultancy services improves the operational efficiency of entrepreneurs.

All India financial institutions have set up TCOs to provide industrial consultancy and training to entrepreneurs. These organizations provide a comprehensive package of services. In an entrepreneurial development programmes, the target group refers to the group of the persons for whom the programmes is design and undertaken.

Every target group has its own needs and constraints. Therefore, the programmes designed for one group might be 4 Madhya Pradesh Consultancy Organization Ltd. Write a short note on Target Group. Before the programmes is designed and started the target group to be trained must be clearly defined. An executive development programmes may be organized for any one of the following target groups: The training programmes for such people may be design to enable and assist them in setting up their own manufacturing units.

The industries selected for this purpose may be directly related with their qualifications and experience. Persons who have retired from the army, navy and air force constitute an important group for entrepreneurial training. These persons have acquired many useful skills and experience during their service period. They tend to be highly disciplined, hardworking, engineering and innovative.

He states that labours means 'men' and is a function of several variables. The supply of factory labours is governed by available alternative means of livelihood, traditionalism and expectations of life. Liebenstein identified gap filling as an important characteristic of entrepreneurship. In economic theory the production function is considered to be well defined and completely known.

Dynamics Of Entrepreneurial Development And Management By Vasant Desai Pdf Free 39

But the theory is silent about the keeper of the knowledge of production function. Where and to whom in the firm this knowledge is supposed to be available is never stated. It is the entrepreneurial function to make up the deficiencies or to fill the gaps. These gaps arise because all the inputs in the production function cannot be marketed because some inputs like motivation, leadership etc.

This "gap-filling" activity gives rise to a most important entrepreneurial function namely "Input-Completing". He has to marshal all the inputs to realize final products. AFunction of Group Level Pattern: Frank W.

Young was reluctant to accept the entrepreneurial characteristics at the individual level. According to him, instead of individual, one must find clusters which may qualify itself as entrepreneurial groups, as the groups with higher differentiation have the capacity to react. He defined 'reactiveness' or 'solidarity' as the degree to which the members of the group create, maintain and project a coherent definition of their situation; and 'differentiation' is defined as the diversity, as opposed to coherence, of the social meanings maintained by the group, when a group has a higher degree of institutional and occupational diversity, relative to its acceptance, it tends to intensify its internal communication which gives rise to a unified definition of the situation.

What are the objectives and Phases of Entrepreneurial Development Programme. Objectives or Need of EDPs: A Initial or Pre-Training Phase: Entrepreneurial development programme means a programme designed to help a person in strengthing his entrepreneurial motive and in acquiring skills and capabilities necessary for playing his entrepreneurial role effectively. It is very necessary to promote his understanding to motives, motivation pattern, their impact on behaviour and entrepreneurial value.

A programme which seeks to do this can qualify to be called as EDP. In other words A EDP is primarily concerned with developing and motivating entrepreneurial talent and growing him to be an effective entrepreneur. An entrepreneur make use of the factors of production to the fullest advantage of the society, create innovations, generate employment, improve the standard of living of people, develop backward areas etc.

EDP has an important role to play in solving the unemployment problem. Phases of Entrepreneurial Developement Programme: An entrepreneurial development programme consists of three broad phases: This phase includes the activities and the preparations required to launch the training programme.

The main activities are: Thus, pre-training stage involves the identification and selection of potential entrepreneurs and providing initial motivation to them. Selection of potential entrepreneurs has two essential components: Identifying Entrepreneurial Traits: Identification of Enterprise: B Training or Development Phase: Every participant must have a minimum level of eligibility for developing into an entrepreneur.

Entrepreneurial traits include socio- personal and human re-sources characteristics: The most common socio-personal characteristics are: Caste and family background help create entrepreneurial environment and occupational awareness for the entrepreneurs.

Studies have revealed that younger people are more successful entrepreneur. A minimum level of education is essential to perform functions like meeting officials etc. The size of the family and the entrepreneur's status in the family are important. A small entrepreneur has generally to depend upon family members as he cannot afford to hire workers.

These are: It is the urge to improve one-self in relation to a goal. It refers to seeking challenge in one's activity. It has been defined as the desire for influencing other people and surrounding environment. It has been defined as the general sense of adequacy in a person. Once an entrepreneur having necessary socio- personal and human resources characteristics is identified, it is necessary to identify s suitable enterprise or project for him.

The enterprise must be matched with the potential entrepreneur. All the background information like his skills, experience in the field, etc. The raw materials availability, the marketing avenues and profitability of the enterprise have to be explored. During this phase the training programme is implemented to develop motivation and skills among the participants. The objective of this phase is to bring desirable changes in the behaviours of the trainees.

The trainers have to judge how much, and how far the trainees have moved in their entrepreneurial pursuit's. Atrainer should see the following changes in the behaviour of participants: The main training inputs are as follows: Once the entrepreneur selects a particular enterprise the technical aspects of the trade is essential. He needs to also know the economic aspects of the technology including costs and benefits.

In order to develop human resources, development of achievement motive is essential. The purpose of AMT is to develop the need to achieve, risk taking, initiative and other such behavioural traits. A motivational development programme creates self awareness and self confidence among the participants and enables them to think positively and realistically. The participants should be given opportunity to actually conduct market surveys for their chosen project. Once a participant is able to start the enterprise he requires managerial skills.

Managerial skills are particularly essential for a small scale enterprise who cannot afford to employ specialists in different areas of management. The aim should be to enable the participant to look at an enterprise in its totality and to develop overall managerial understanding. Alot of time needs to be devoted to the actual preparation of project.

Their active involvement in this task would provide them necessary understanding and also ensure their personal commitment. This phase involves assessment to judge how far the objectives of the programme have been achieved.

Monitoring and follow up reveals drawbacks in the earlier phases and suggests guidelines for framing the future policy. In this phase infrastructural support, counseling and assistance in establishing new enterprise and in developing the existing units can also be reviewed.

Some common activities in the monitoring and follow up process are as follows: Content of Training Programme: Some of the major institutions for EDPs in India are as follows: The entrepreneurship development institute of India is an apex entrepreneurship institute promoted by industrial development bank of India, Industrial credit and Investment Corporation of India, Industrial Finance Corporation of India and state bank of India.

The institute enjoys acute support of government of Gujarat. The institute has been operating for the past more than 15 years now. The institute undertakes entrepreneurship development programmes to serve the following development objectives: The main objective of the institute are explained as follows: Xavier Institute of Social Services, Ranchi has been training rural entrepreneurs since Xavier Institute provides the training and assists the trainees in drafting project proposals and obtaining the required finance.

It offers a six months programme to tribal with minimum literacy and numeracy skills. The programme consists of: Explain the Entrepreneurial Development Programme in India. This is a technical management consultancy Organization.

It was promoted by all-India financial institutions and state Corporations. It undertakes assignments for project planning, detailed engineering, market surveys, management surveys and entrepreneurship development programmes. The programme consists of the following stages: This Centre was organized as registered society by a number of prominent industrialists, businessman, bankers, professionals and social workers.

It was setup in response to rapidly increasing unemployment and social unrest in Calcutta during the early s. It began as a vocational programme to provide self employment for educated youths. It has developed innovative approaches to help people set up their own business. The main programme are explained as follows: Access to high quality consultancy services improves the operational efficiency of entrepreneurs. All India financial institutions have set up TCOs to provide industrial consultancy and training to entrepreneurs.

These organizations provide a comprehensive package of services. In an entrepreneurial development programmes, the target group refers to the group of the persons for whom the programmes is design and undertaken. Every target group has its own needs and constraints.

Therefore, the programmes designed for one group might be 4 Madhya Pradesh Consultancy Organization Ltd. Write a short note on Target Group. Before the programmes is designed and started the target group to be trained must be clearly defined.

An executive development programmes may be organized for any one of the following target groups: The training programmes for such people may be design to enable and assist them in setting up their own manufacturing units.

The industries selected for this purpose may be directly related with their qualifications and experience. Persons who have retired from the army, navy and air force constitute an important group for entrepreneurial training. These persons have acquired many useful skills and experience during their service period. They tend to be highly disciplined, hardworking, engineering and innovative.

Therefore they can become successful entrepreneurs after proper entrepreneurial training. Some business executives want to start their own independent enterprise after getting sufficient business experience.

Some of them have certain innovative ideas which they are not able to try in their existing firms due to lack of sufficient authority. Some among them are not satisfied with their present economic and social status. After entrepreneurial training senior business executives can become successful entrepreneurs. Women are entering the business especially traditional food processing industries like spices, agarbati, papad etc. Several Governments and non- governments organizations organizing entrepreneurial training programmes for women.

Government of India is committed to be upliftment of scheduled castes S. C and Scheduled Tribes S. Therefore specified percentage of jobs has been reserved for these castes.

But all persons from these groups cannot be offered employment. Government agencies give preference to S. C and S. T entrepreneurs in providing finance and other necessary facilities. The government of India has been established specialized agencies for training entrepreneurs. Special schemes have also been launched to train, develop and assist entrepreneurs. The government of India for the first time tabled the new small enterprise policy in titled 'Policy Measures for Promoting and Strengthening and Supplementing Small, Tiny and Village Enterprise, in Parliament on August 6, The main thrust of the new small 1.

Technical and other qualified Persons: Ex- Serviceman: Business Executives: Women Entrepreneurs: T Entrepreneurs: Special agencies and Schemes: Government Policy: The sector had been substantially licensed and concerted efforts were made to regulate and debureaucratize the sector with a view to remove all fetters on its growth potential on the one hand and reposing greater faith in small and new enterprises on the other.

Increasing in the investment limit in plant and machinery of tiny enterprises from Rs. Inclusion of industry related service and business enterprises, irrespective of their location as small-scale industries. To introduce a limited partnership act. This would limit the financial liability of the new enterprises to the capital invested. Introduction of a scheme of integrated infrastructural development for small-scale industries. Introduction of factoring services to help solve the problems of delayed payments of small-scale sector.

To set up a Technology Development Cell in the small industries development organization. To accord priority to small and tiny sector ion the allocation of indigenous raw materials. Setting up of an Export Development Center in the small industries development organization. To widen the scope of the National Equity Fund NEF to enlarge the single window scheme and also to associate commercial banks with provision of composite loans.

The new policy was founded on a proper understanding of the fundamental problems of the small-scale sector and the measures proposed by it have integrated the various handicaps that face this sector. These make them sensitive. In fact, small business in such a sensitive field where Murphy's Law if anything can go wrong, it will seems to operate without fail. The first thousand days seems to be as critical in small business as in administration.

The former needs support and the latter indoctrination for survival. In the beginning, small industries have to incur more expenses, but the returns are either The salient features of the price policy were: Taxation Benefits: If this becomes uncontrollable, the unit may fall sick and needs rehabilitation before it is actually anticipated.

Therefore, they need to be provided support and assistance to tide over the crucial initial stages to enable them to survive. Hence, the government needs to come forward with various benefits to offer to small- scale industries in the country. One way to support the development of small-scale industries by the government is to provide them tax benefits.

The government either exempts them from tax or provides concession in tax liability. This helps small industries accumulate capital, on the one hand, and plough back profits in business, on the other. The various tax benefits available to small-scale industries are now enumerated and discussed one by one. This exemption in tax is allowed for the period of five years from the commencement of production.

A small-scale industry has to satisfy the following two conditions to avail of this tax exemption facility; i The unit should not have been formed by the splitting or reconstitution of an existing unit. Under section 32 of the Income TaxAct, , a small-scale industry is entitled to a deduction on depreciation on block of assets at the prescribed rate. In the case of the small-scale industry, deduction from the actual cost of plant and machinery is allowed subject to a maximum of rupees 20 Lakhs.

The amount of depreciation is calculated by the diminishing balance method. In case of an asset acquired before the accounting period, depreciation is calculated on its written down value. For plant and machinery that are used in manufacturing in double or triple shift, an additional allowance called 'Extra Shift Allowance' is available. A small-scale industry should satisfy the following conditions before it becomes eligible for deduction in depreciation: A rehabilitation allowance is granted to small-scale industries under section B of the Income-Tax Act, The allowance is give to those small businesses that had to suffer on account of the following reasons: The rehabilitation allowance should be used for the business purposes within three years of the unit's re-establishment reconstruction of revival.

The investment allowance was introduced way back in to replace the initial depreciation allowance. Although the investment allowance has been made available for the article or things except certain items of low priority, yet, as per the 11th schedule to the Income Tax Act , a special dispensation has been provided for the plant and machinery installed in small-scale industries.

In comparison with other industries are at an advantage in claiming a deduction of investment allowance. A small-scale industry can avail of investment allowance provided it has put to use machinery or plant either in the year of installation or in the immediate following year, falling which the benefit will be forfeited. Under the section 35 of the Income Tax Act , the following deductions in respect of expenditure on scientific research are allowed: It is easy to start small enterprises but difficult to make them survive.

It is more so in the context of ever increasing competition in business brought about by liberalization, globalization and privatization of the Indian economy. The small businesses generally lose out on this platform.

MICROFINANCE AND ENTREPRENEURIAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA

Only those enterprises can survive that possess enough strength to face the stiff and complex competition. Further, small enterprises find it more difficult to face competencies, etc, and become weaker. The question then arises-how to develop competitive strength among small enterprises to meet competition effectively?

The answer to this question is 'quality'. In aggregate, TQM can help strengthening of small enterprises in the following manner: A quality certification scheme was launched in to improve the quality standards of SSI products which are to be assisted by awareness programmes and financial support to acquired ISO or similar international quality standards. Various entrepreneurial inputs influencing the entrepreneurship are as follows: Economic environment exercises the most direct and immediate influence on entrepreneurship.

The economic factors that affect the growth of entrepreneurship are the following: Capital is one of the most important perquisites to establish an enterprise. Availability of capital facilitates for the entrepreneur to bring together the land of one, machine of another and raw material of yet another to combine them to produce goods.

Capital is therefore, regarded as lubricant to the process of production. Our accumulated experience suggests that with an increase in capital investment, capital- output ratio also tends to increase. This results in increase in profit which ultimately goes to capital formation. This suggests that as capital supply increases, entrepreneurship also increases.

The quality rather quantity of labour is another factor which influences the emergence of entrepreneurship. Most less developed countries are labour rich nations owing to a dense and even increasing population.

But entrepreneurship is encouraged if there is a mobile and flexible labour force. And, the potential advantages of low-cost labour are regulated by the deleterious effects of labour immobility. The considerations of economic and emotional security inhibit labour mobility. Entrepreneurs, therefore often find difficulty to secure sufficient labour. The necessity of raw materials hardly needs any emphasis for establishing any industrial activity and its influence in the emergence of Q.

Write a note on Entrepreneurial Input. Entrepreneurial Input: A Economic Inputs: In the absence of raw materials, neither any enterprise can be established nor can an entrepreneur be emerged. Of course, in some cases, technological innovation can compensate for raw material inadequacies. The fact remains that the potential of the market constitute the major determinant of probable rewards from entrepreneurial function.

Frankly speaking, if the proof of pudding lies in eating, the proof of all function lies in consumption, i. The size and composition of market both influence entrepreneurship in their own ways. Practically, monopoly in a particular product in a market becomes more influential for entrepreneurship than a competitive market.

Expansion of entrepreneurship presupposes properly developed communication and transportation facilities. It not only helps to enlarge the market, but expend the horizons of business too. Take for instance, the establishment of post and telegraph system and construction of roads and highway in India. Social factors can go a long way in encouraging entrepreneurship. In fact it was the highly helpful society that made the industrial revolution a glorious success in Europe. The main components of social environment are as follows: There are certain cultural practices and values in every society which influence the actions of individuals.

These practices and value have evolved over hundred of years. For example, consider the caste system the varna system among the Hindus in India. It has divided the population on the basis of caste into four divisions: By 'social mobility' we mean the freedom to move from one caste to another.

The caste system does not permit an individual who is born a Shudra to move to a higher caste. This facto includes size of family, type of family and economic status of family. In a study by Hadimani, it has been revealed that Zamindar family helped to gain access to political power and exhibit higher level of entrepreneurship.

Backgroud of a family in manufacturing provided a source of industrial entrepreneurship. Occupational and social status of the family influenced mobility. Education enables one to understand the outside world and equips him with the basic knowledge and skills to deal with day-to-day problems.

In any society, the system of education has a significant role to play in inculcating entrepreneurial values. B Social Inputs: C Psychological Inputs: Arelated aspect to these is the attitude of the society towards entrepreneurship. Certain societies encourage innovations and novelties, and thus approve entrepreneurs' actions and rewards like profits. Certain others do not tolerate changes and in such circumstances, entrepreneurship cannot take root and grow.

Similarly, some societies have an inherent dislike for any money-making activity. Motives impel men to action. Entrepreneurial growth requires proper motives like profit-making, acquisition of prestige and attainment of social status.

Ambitious and talented men would take risks and innovate if these motives are strong. The strength of these motives depends upon the culture of the society. If the culture is economically or monetarily oriented, entrepreneurship would be applauded and praised, wealth accumulation as a way of life would be appreciated.

Many entrepreneurial theorists have propounded theories of entrepreneurship that concentrate especially upon psychological factors.

These are as follows: The most important psychological theories of entrepreneurship were put forward in the early s by David McClelland. According to McClelland 'need achievement' is social motive to excel that tends to characterize successful entrepreneurs, especially when reinforced by cultural factors. He found that certain kinds of people, especially those who became entrepreneurs, had this characteristic.

Moreover, some societies tend to reproduce a larger percentage of people with high 'need achievement' than other societies. McClelland attributed this to sociological factors.

Differences among societies and individuals accounted for 'need achievement' being greater in some societies and less in certain others.

Annual John D. Thompson Entrepreneurial Development Seminar

There are several other researchers who have tried to understand the psychological roots of entrepreneurship. One such individual is Everett Hagen who stresses the psychological consequences of social change. Hagen says, at some point many social groups experience a radical loss of status.

Hagen attributed the withdrawal of status respect of a group to the genesis of entrepreneurship. He postulates that four types of events can produce status withdrawal: He further postulates that withdrawal of status respect would give rise to four possible reactions and create four difference personality types: He who adopts a kind of defensive behavior and acts in the way accepted and approved in his society but no hopes of improving his position; He is a person who foments a rebellion and attempts to establish a new society; and He is a creative individual and is likely to be an entrepreneur.

Other psychological theories of entrepreneurship stress the motives or goals of the entrepreneurs. Cole is the opinion that besides wealth, entrepreneurs seek power, prestige, security and service to society. Stepanek points particularly to non-monetary aspects such as independence, person's self-esteem, power and regard of the society.

On the same subject, Evans distinguishes motive by three kinds of entrepreneurs. Thomas Begley and David P. Boyd studied in details the psychological roots of entrepreneurship in the mid s. Traditionally, it was believed that entrepreneurs are Entrepreneurial Development, Revised Edition by Dr.

Entrepreneurial development by dr ss khanka pdf

Next, click your name in the top right corner and choose Change account type. The paper focuses on social entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Be Wow-ed by Speedy Results! Business, Investing and Management Books. And other Management Courses. The percentage analysis, weighted average rank analysis and chi-square statistical method are used for the study. R evision 1. Fan Hindi Full Movie Hd p.

Gopal: Innovation Entrepreneurial development by ss khanka pdf Entrepreneurial development by ss khanka pdf Chand Publishing Trim size : 6. Reviews, screenshots and comments about Igo primo apps like Primo.

A site where you can download pc developmetn cracks, patch serial. Bhavikatti, Vol-I, New Entrepreneurship is influenced by four distinct factors: economic development, culture, technological development and education. Given its important role in the overall scheme of economic develop ment, it is interesting to note that not many persons opt for a career in entrepreneurship. A case study method of research was deployed pdf.

Unit 1: Entrepreneurial Development Perspective: Concept of entrepreneurship development and their dynamics. Entrepreneurship acts as starter to give spark to economic activities by entrepreneurial judgments. download Entrepreneurial Development by S. This site is like a library, Use search box in the widget to get ebook that you want.

Dil Entrepreneurial development by ss khanka Pagal Hai. At the end of the each chapter Assessment : Entrepreneurial Development by S.

The researcher has been selected respondents from in and around Tirupur City by convenience sampling method. Entrepreneurship development has therefore become a matter of great concern in all countries. Join Scarlett, the entrepreneurial development by ss khanka star of Farm Frenzy 3.

To support such development, the community must develop links among key institutions, a vibrant entrepreneurial spirit and a commitment and dedication to risk taking and risk sharing. It can occur at both the nationwide level and the firm-wide level. In other words, it is the inculcation, advancement, and grooming of entrepreneurial skills into a person needed to establish and successfully run an enterprise.

At the end of the each chapter Assessment Social entrepreneurship; Economic, social and psychological needs for entrepreneurship; The schools of entrepreneurial thought; Roles of entrepreneurship in economic development; Small business as the seedbed of entrepreneurship; Ethics and social responsibility in entrepreneurship; Barriers to entrepreneurship.

We got you covered with our range of eBooks to help you design, launch and run your new business.